Monday, May 25, 2020

Liquidity - Dictionary Definition of Liquidity

Liquidity refers to how quickly and cheaply an asset can be converted into cash. Money (in the form of cash) is the most liquid asset. Assets that generally can only be sold after a long exhaustive search for a buyer are known as illiquid. Terms related to Liquidity: Liquidity TrapLiquidity ConstraintThe Keynes Effect Resources on Liquidity: What Happens if Interest Rates Go To Zero?What is Money? Writing a Term Paper or High School / College Essay? Here are a few starting points for research on Liquidity: Books on Liquidity Financial crises, liquidity, and the international monetary system - Jean Tirole, Princeton, and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2002.Cash flow forecasting and liquidity - Brian Coyle, Chicago, Ill. : New York: Glenlake Pub. Co., 2000.Managing corporate liquidity - Chicago: New York: Glenlake Pub., 1999 (2nd edition). Journal Articles on Liquidity Order Imbalance, Liquidity, and Market Returns - Tarun Chordia, Journal of Financial Economics v65, n1 (July 2002): 111-30.Domestic and International Supply of Liquidity - Bengt Holstrom, American Economic Review v92, n2 (May 2002): 42-45.Bank Bailouts and Aggregate Liquidity - Douglas W. Diamond, American Economic Review v92, n2 (May 2002): 38-41.A Dual Liquidity Model for Emerging Markets - Ricardo J. Caballero, American Economic Review v92, n2 (May 2002): 33-37.Liquidity Risk and Specialness - Andrea Buraschi, Journal of Financial Economics v64, n2 (May 2002): 243-84.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Fighting the Fire Women in the Victorian Era - 922 Words

One may come too close to the fire and let her demons consume her, leaving all but the ashes and dust. Others can overcome these obstacles and can wash away the burning flames of sadness. Antoinette is unable to control this fire, while Jane is able to wash away these restraints. According to Spivak, the concepts of â€Å"Self and Other† refers to how people are defined by who they are in relation to others; the â€Å"other† allows the Self to exist as empowered (Spivak cited in Rodenburg). In this essay, I will discuss how Antoinette, from Wide Sargasso Sea, and Jane, from Jane Eyre, both face similar challenges throughout their lives, but deal with their pains in different manners. I will argue that both Jane and Antoinette experience social†¦show more content†¦She waits until Rochester is able to see her true beauty before she accepts his proposal. She does not allow men to take her for granted, signifying her strength and independence as a woman. Just like Jane, Antoinette becomes seduced by Rochester and she is controlled by his social powers. He deliberately makes her depend on him financially. Rochester can be seen as an oppressor in this relationship, and this marriage shows the dominance that the men have over the women during the Victorian times. Antoinette has to deal with a world of fear and hatred. As a reader, it is hard not to feel sympathy for her because she was never truly loved and she was often left rejected. Antoinette feels as if there is nothing she can do about this unfavourable situation because of the lack of power women have during this time in history. She has to live with the changes made by others, and this ultimately leads to her downfall. When Rochester and Antoinette arrive back to Rochester’s home, he locks her in the attic and has Grace Poole, guard her. There is no mirror in the attic, and without her reflection, she begins to lose her identity. Rochester changes her name to â€Å"Berth a Mason† to complete Antoinette’s transformation into a madwoman. This novel ends tragically as Antoinette decides to take her own life, saying: â€Å"I was outside holding my candle. Now at last I know why I was brought here and what I have to do. There must have been a draught for the flame flickeredShow MoreRelatedThe Exposure of Feminist Critique in 19th Century Literature: a Look at Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre1749 Words   |  7 PagesResistance is the action of fighting back against an unwanted force that may be deemed oppressive in ones life. It is created for different causes and comes in many forms; it may be made verbal, explicit, implicit, physical, and even made humorous or satirical. Charlotte Brontà «, a 19th century Victorian feminist wrote her novel Jane Eyre as a means of exposing the confining environments, shameful lack of education, and pitiful dependence upon male relatives for survival (Brackett, 2000). CharlotteRead MoreJane Eyre, By Charlotte Bronte1143 Words   |  5 PagesDerek Chao Ms.Roberts AP Literature November 18 2015 Awesome Essay Jane Eyre, written by Charlotte Brontà «, illustrates a British society that depicts an uneven distribution of wealth among people in the Victorian Era, creating this gap between the rich and poor. Social class in British society was made of the lower, middle, and upper class. Brontà « implemented characters like Mr.Brocklehurst and the Reeds to show that characters that were high in class and supported the social hierarchy were notRead MoreThe Awakening By Kate Chopin1360 Words   |  6 Pages In the Victoria Era, women were fighting to break free of a society that suppresses a free spirit. In Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening, Edna is the main protagonist of the story that has become awakened and now realizes the type of society that she lives in. Her husband, Leonce Pontellier, disagrees with her behavior; Robert Lebrun- Edna’s lover- has a complex relationship with her, and Victor Lebrun and his mother Madame Lebrun are Edna’s friends that are observant of her changes throughout theRead MoreIdentity as a Name in The Importance of Being Earnest626 Words   |  2 Pagesdetects that they are undoubtedly fighting over Ernest as well as superiority, but their true feelings are ironically hidden (rather poorly) under fake earnestness. Garland states that, â€Å"both women attempt to define the existence of their opponent through rapidly shifting expression of Identity† (272), and cause a quiet fire in the atmosphere of the scene. Since their fight is so indirect and blatantly petty, Wilde is able to comically criticize females of victorian society that are represented byRead MoreAnalysis Of Emily Bronte s Wuthering Heights Essay2188 Words   |  9 PagesCatherine’s decision to marry Edgar, as opposed to Heathcliff, without first understanding the period in which Brontà « set her novel. The Victorian era, although positive in a scientific sense, was a brutal period for women, a â€Å"world of sadism, violence, and wanton cruelty† (Thompson 71). It perpetuated ideals such as specified gender roles, primogeniture, and the belief that women are property, without a societal voice. As a woman, Brontà « experienced this discrimination firsthand as she was forced to initiallyRead MoreH.G. Wells Time Machine and Its Relativity with the Victorian Era2096 Words   |  9 PagesH.G. Wells Time Machine and Its Relativity with the Victorian Era Herbert George Wells was an English writer from the nineteenth century. He was born on September the 21st 1866 in Bromley, Kent. He first wrote a book when he was eleven; although this was not published it was a great achievement. He won a scholarship to the school of science, but he failed due to his other interests such as history, journalism, sociology and writing. His dad was a pro cricketer and a Read MoreFeminism in Jane Eyre and the wide sargasso sea Essay1061 Words   |  5 Pagesis a world in which men are the sole decision makers and hold positions of power and the highest authority. Patriarchy occurs when men are dominant, not necessarily in numbers but in their status related to decision making and power. As a result, women are introduced to a world made by men, and a history refined by a mans actions. In jean Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea, the author focuses on the history of Bertha, one of the characters who are not given a voice in Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre. AlthoughRead MoreThe Role of Women in the 1920s and F. Scott Fitzgerald’s the Great Gatsby1561 Words   |  7 PagesThe Roaring Twenties: a time when women broke out of their shells of modesty and were not afraid to bare a little skin or wear a bit of makeup; when women finally gained some control; when jazz music, drinking and partying were what society lived for; when flappers danced the night away. The 1920s was an era of great change in society’s attitude toward many different aspects of life. For instance, what was considered acceptable behavior for women and the way men treated their wives drasticallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Victorian Culture On The Arthurian Legends2061 Words   |  9 PagesThe Effect of Victorian Culture on the Arthurian Legends The Arthurian legends stand as a mutable model of the perfect court and ruler which has been transformed by authors over the centuries to fit new cultural ideals and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King is no exception to this pattern of transformation. With his retellings of the tales of King Arthur based on earlier models of the stories, most notably the works of Sir Thomas Malory, Tennyson represents some of the most common Victorian cultural viewsRead MoreFlorence Nightingale As A Nurse1552 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, a nurse is defined as â€Å"a person who cares for the sick or infirm.† Florence Nightingale was a nurse. During the 1800’s, the Victorian Era, nurses were given a second definition beside the one listed before. Nurses were considered menial laborers, until Miss Florence took control. Although recently her position has been considered outdated, losing it’s preciousness, Florence Nightingale and the influenc e she had on so many lives is not to go without notice

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Cradle I Am Naafash, Son Of Urmine And Lemefess

ORIGINS 1.0 I am Naafash, son of Urmine and Lemefess. Wanderers of the cradle, that have seen the Kingdom of Assur, will talk of its beauty, its glory and of its awe. I am witness to this great empire, and these are my chronicles. ORIGINS 1.1 I was raised on the outskirts of Assur, the youngest of three, I was always the trouble-maker in the family. By the time I was five, I was able to pick and grow corn. My family had been corn farmers, for as long as our ancestors account, and while we were not as respected as the families of military leaders, we played an important role in society. Our vast corn fields helped feed the increasing population of the city of Assur. We were a religious family, and like farming I was also taught of†¦show more content†¦ORIGINS 1.2 The summers in Assur were incredibly hot and dry, and I had spent the day working ambitiously with my father and brother irrigating the crop so it would not die. The sun had set for some time now, so we decided to call it a day and go inside for dinner. While we were working on the farm my mother and sister had been cooking in the kitchen in order to feed a household of five. My father had sat down at the head of the table and called for my sister to bring him his liquor, My father was a mean drunk, laughing at himself, demanding from my mother and my sister, insulting my brother and I, while we sat in silence. Most nights this would carry on until he had drank himself to sleep, but that night he order my mother to bring himself a fifth cup of liquor. When she told him the bottle was empty, he grabbed her viciously by the hair. â€Å"Well why don’t you go buy some more?† my father said, throwing her a coin. He then struck my mother across the face twice, and on the sec ond time she fell to the floor. My sister rushed to help her up, â€Å"sit down!† he commanded. My brother and I were furious, but what could we do? It was the law, he was allowed to hit my mother as he so pleased. So I offered to go into the city to get him his liquor, and my brother agreed to watch over my mother and sister in the meantime. ORIGINS 1.3 The first time I had walked into the city of Assur, I was accompanied by my father, at

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Heroes in Poetry the Hero Siegfred Sassoon Essay Example For Students

Heroes in Poetry the Hero Siegfred Sassoon Essay For many, war was advertised through posters as being a once in a lifetime opportunity and adventure for men to fight for their country. In reality, the destruction and horror that consumed all enlisted men when out at battle was not known to many around the world. The title The Hero is ironically termed. Upon reading the first line of the poem it is assumed that Swanson would be writing about a war hero someone who may have sacrificed his life for others or who may have simply served honorably and strong willingly fought for his country. In the first Tanta the mother is introduced by saying Jack fell as hed have wished. This creates the Impression that Jack died an honorable soldiers death, falling In action. However, through further reading we see that there Is a harsh contrast between his death and the foreshadowed yet completely false hero he was depicted to be through the title. Hed told the poor old dear some gallant lies this affirms to us as readers that Jacks death was not as glorious and memorable as portrayed earlier on through the Colonels letter. Swanson then continues on to reveal to us that Jack was a cold-footed, useless swine and that he had panicked down the trench that night the merely a boy, another useless soldier at war who never quite understood the concept of how to fight a proper battle. Swanson reveals to us the realities and illusions that were faced during the period of war. Whilst many lies were told to protect loved ones of discovering the harsh truth, the realities of the nightmarish war were soon portrayed through poems such as The Hero. The poem The Hero allows readers to be challenged on a commonly held view that all men at war act courageously and with velour as the poem begs to differ. We as readers are forced to reassess our view that all men at war act with honor and pride for their country. For many it is a misconception and once the truth is known about the cruelty of war people still lie to themselves in order to feel satisfied about our men being at war living and fighting in horrific conditions. Many other poems express the idea that going to war was a glorious service for your country. Swanson however enforces us to rethink our common view when it says hed tried to get sent home in reference to Jack the soldier. The writer displays to us that war was a time of readership and for many nightmarish, distressing and a longing for home was profound for the soldiers at war. Swanson conveys to readers the proud attitudes relatives would have held for loved ones enlisted in the War at the time. When a soldier dies or more commonly known in war Jargon as AKA killed in action the family gets informed about his death and his glorious service and sacrifice for his homeland. In the poem Jacks mother receives a note containing similar information regarding his exemplary courage. These notes that would have been delivered to hundreds of thousands of relatives express how their sons/brothers/fathers laid down their lives for a noble cause. Swanson is able to convey to his readers the attitudes loved ones would have held, emphasized through Jacks mother saying that We mothers are so proud of our dead soldiers. This was an attitude endorsed by the war with continued distribution of notes and letters similar to this. The writer portrays how it was much more dignified telling gallant lies to mothers rather than them hearing the bitter truth and therefore relatives gained the attitude of feeling pride and honor for their beloved boy.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Filippo Brunelleschi Essays - The Feast Of Herod, Perspective

Filippo Brunelleschi Use of perspective in art finds its root in one man, Filippo Brunelleschi. Although we don't know for sure, it is likely that Brunelleschi also invented linear, or scientific perspective. Donatello's "The Feast of Herod" is the earliest surviving example of scientific perspective, which is established through the use of a "vanishing point", an imaginary single point on the page in which all the parallel lines meet. Donatello's Feast of Herod was a groundbreaking work by that day's standards, and a complete failure in the fulfillment of compositional requirements of traditional classical or medieval standards. The focal point of the piece, the presentation of St. John's head to Herod, is in the far left corner, and the crowd watching is clustered into the right corner. Upon examination of the action, however, Donatello's intention is clear; by placing the people in this way, the gesture and emotion of the scene is more implicit and effective. It is also more clearly established that the scene does not end at the focal point, it in fact continues off into every direction, an impression more clearly made with his use of scientific perspective. This "window" view into the scene was a radical step, and would influence how the picture plane was to be seen from that point on. Another important milestone in the history of perspective is Pietro Perudino's "The Delivery of the Keys". Painted in 1482, this work employs a grave, symmetrical structure, a tool he used to emphasize the importance of the scene being represented: The authority of St. Peter as the first pope, and all of his successors, rests on his having received the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven from Christ himself. The onlookers are all rendered with powerfully individualized faces. Equally powerful is the vast expanse of the almost surreal background. The spatial clarity, established by the use of mathematically precise perspective, is the influence of Brunelleschi. Andrea Mantegna was another 15th century painter. He was a prodigy that rendered in paint with skill from the age of 16 on. With the painting "St. James Led to His Execution" Mantegna established himself as a person who wasn't afraid to break with traditional painting techniques, and adds a daring touch by painting from a ground up view of the scene. This was used because the painting was hung so tha the bottom of the painting was at the viewer's eye level. Because of this the architecture looms intimidatingly, and is made more convincing by his use of scientific perspective.His desire for authenticity can be seen in every small detail, including the Roman soldiers' costumes. It even extends to the use of wet drapery patterns, an invention of classical Greek sculpture that was then passed onto the Romans. We can also find a reference to Donatello in Mantegna's rendering of the lean, tense bodies of the Roman soldiers. The intensity that Mantegna establishes by using these techniques hardly fits the subject matter, as the condemned saint, on the way to his execution, stops to bless a paralytic man and command him to walk. The onlookers facial expressions and gesture hint at how deeply this sight has stirred them. Mantegna has even painted a violent scene erupting off to the right as the crowd becomes agitated. In writing this paper, I assumed that you assigned the paintings in the Met because of their accessibility to engineering students who may not have any art books. I knew of these works as important stepping stones in the modern use of perspective, and I felt the need to write.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Torvald Helmer Essays

Torvald Helmer Essays Torvald Helmer Paper Torvald Helmer Paper As soon as Nora speaks those words, she transforms into an independent woman, quite different from the doll (Ibsen 1017) that Torvald has made her out to be. Torvald, too, cannot escape his own reality. Torvald. Through most of the exposition, seems like a loving, devoted husband and father. He seems to be strong, virtuous, ambitions, and a man of integrity. After the party, Torvald makes a show of his devotion, telling Nora that he has wished [Nora] was in some terrible danger, just so [he] could stake [his] life and soul and everything for [her] sake. (Ibsen 1011) This illusion of devotion is quickly dissipated, however, after he gains news of Noras folly. His demeanor switches entirely from the loving husband to a cold, petulant man who cares only for his social image. He laughs at the possibility of losing his reputation to save Nora, saying that theres no one who gives up honor for love. (Ibsen 1017) Torvald, like Nora, is not the strong husband he was made out to be. Rather, he is a puny, egotistical man bound by the conventions of the society to which he belongs. Yet another character not to be taken at face value is the purported family friend, Dr. Rank. A kindly old friend of the family, Dr. Rank seems to be a wise, trustworthy advisor to Nora. He knows his place in the house, as a trusted companion to Nora. With knowledge of his impending death he even goes so far to say that [Mrs. Linde] will be my successor here in the house. (Ibsen 995) Despite his place in the household as a dependable friend, Rank is hiding something much more sinister. Rank has an ulterior motive in his frequent visits to the Helmer household. The lonely old doctor is too lonely for his own good. So lonely, in fact, that he lusts after Nora. He admits to her that [hes] loved [her] just as deeply as somebody else. (Ibsen 996) Dr. Rank, the supposed comrade and compatriot, is nothing more than a covetous false suitor, trying to steal Nora away from Torvald. Though the script calls for three actors to play Rank, Torvald, and Nora, it may have been more appropriate to call for six, one for each of their guises, and one for their realities. The three characters had ulterior motives abound. They were false to others, and to themselves, which is not unlike modern society. Today, there is still a mentality of publicly smiling while privately frowning that has only grown since the publishing of A Dolls House. It is a shame, really, that more people have not taken the advice Ibsen has given through Dr. Rank and Nora and Torvald Helmer.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Mini project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Mini project - Essay Example ..8 Competence and qualification of the teacher†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 Student’s factor that affect effectiveness of learning†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.9 The level of the student’s memory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Student’s practice†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..9 Engagement of the student with real life situations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.9 Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.11 References list†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..12 Questionnaire to the respondents†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦13 Questionnaires coding†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 What factors are important to UEL unde... In learning, ones knowledge capacity is increased, there are some tendencies of changing of beliefs, behaviors considering the lessons learnt. It is not just anybody who learns about something get the experience and the skills. This calls for an effective learning from the learner. Many have learnt but they have not benefited from the learning. What might have caused it, is it they did not learn effectively or they were not lucky. There are various notions about his and many reaches have been done about the topic and every research tends to come with the best ways to get a lesson out of learning. However, the basic reason why people tend to fail to get the best out of learning is because they did not learn effectively. One may wonder what is effective learning. Everybody has a different perceptive when it comes to effective learning. However, all the different perspectives of effective learning come from the different factors that affect effective learning. This paper tries to consid er these various factors those UEL undergraduate students consider to be the ones that leads to effective learning. The research question wishes to identify the various factor that leads to effective learning, and if these factors are determined by age, the school, or the students. As part of the objectives, the research wishes to put up together these various factors so that UEL students can get the best out of their learning. Methodology The research employed sampling design which is a definite plan for obtaining a sample of a given population. In the sampling design, probability sampling will be used where every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Among the reasons for